The Next Step

I have always been fascinated with stairs and staircases. In one way, stairs are places of transition. They lead somewhere. I am telling you this because my fellow editor, Jacy Meyer, and I are taking a new step. The Word is closing. We hope it is a step forward. Maybe a door would have been […]

The Rhythm of Life

The emotional sounds of the guitar, the intense look on the dancers’ faces, the staccato stamp of their heels – flamenco for me is more of an art form then simply a dance. Madrid, the Spanish capital, is an excellent place to experience the intensity of flamenco. Oral tradition is the tradition of passing information […]

Enough Already

I’ve been hearing the words post-scarcity economy a lot lately. Like any buzzword, there is a little bit of truth in it, but a lot of people don’t understand it. Though you can see some parts of a post-scarcity economy in the Western world – the reach does not go much further. A post-scarcity economy, […]

Brains Apart

A number of scientific studies have been done over the years looking at the differences between men and women. For example men typically have better motor and spatial skills while women have better social cognition and verbal memory. Images have been taken of the brains of both genders and women’s brains have a higher percentage […]

Understanding Violence

On my last trip home in 2012, I noticed people were worried about the increased violence in public, especially among young men. The one story which was in the media a lot was about an unprovoked punch which caused the death of an 18-year-old man. The latest victim is another 18-year-old who was punched on […]

Lethal Leaves

In the last couple of decades, a fungal disease called Ash Dieback has been killing Europe’s ash trees. The Forestry Commission in Britain has turned to a high-tech solution to keep the disease in check. They have developed an app so the general public can help monitor the spread of the fungus.

If something is kept ‘in check’ it is being watched and controlled.

Ash Dieback is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, which was first described in 2006. However, it is believed the infection started in 1992 in Poland, having since spread across Europe. The fungus attacks living ash trees. The origin of the fungus is unknown, though scientists think it could have come from Asia since the ash trees in Asia are immune to it.

The fungus has been shown to attack a number of ash species: the European ash, the Narrow-leafed ash and Manna ash as well as North American species such as the Black ash and Green ash. Infection first appears as dark spots on leaves and branches. Over time the fungus causes leaf loss and eventual death. Forestry commissions take the disease seriously because of its potential to ravage forests. In Denmark the fungus has destroyed between 60 to 90% of ash trees.

The banks of a river are its sides, the land next to the water.

Ash trees are very important to the local ecosystem. Their large root systems help to stabilize the banks of rivers and streams. The trees also provide a home for a number of insect and bird species. An article by Marco Pautasso et al states that the full number of species which depend on ash trees is not completely known. However, they say that certain species of fungus are definitely specific to the ash. These species may provide food for other species so the loss of ash trees could have a wider impact on European ecology.

‘To stem’ something is to stop it.

Given the threat of this disease, it is understandable why the UK Forestry Commission wants to stem the spread of the disease. The app is a good weapon in this fight.

“Our Tree Alert app and on-line reporting form are proving an effective tool for monitoring suspected cases of Chalara ash dieback and, now, other pests and diseases of trees in Great Britain,” said a Forestry Commission spokesperson.

“It enables us to engage a larger number of ‘eyes and ears’ around Britain to report possible cases to us than if we relied on professional surveyors alone. It also gives the public an opportunity to feel personally involved in helping to protect Britain’s trees, woods, forests and natural heritage. We are continuing to develop Tree Alert in the light of experience to maximise the quality of the reports sent to us.”

Original article by Ryan Scott – Sydney, Australia. Text edited by The Word’s methodology team